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以Postgresql為主,再聊聊資料庫 PostgreSQL Event Trigger 初探

PostgreSQL Event Trigger 初探

什麼是Event Trigger?

這裡的event 其實是ddl event, 就是當我們下 create , drop 這類ddl時,會產生ddl event, 而event trigger 就是捕捉相對應的event,然後觸發.

用途

既然可以捕捉相對應的event,就可以做紀錄,或是通知,甚至更進一步的控制.

官方文件

概述
語法
函數
Event Trigger Firing Matrix
System Catalogs

範例

先建立一個 event trigger function

create or replace function f_event_trigger_demo()
returns event_trigger
language plpgsql as 
$code$
declare
  event_tuple record;
begin
  raise info 'Event trigger function called ';
  for event_tuple in
      select *
        from pg_event_trigger_ddl_commands() loop
        
      raise info 'command_tag [%] object_type [%]', event_tuple.command_tag, event_tuple.object_type;
  
  end loop;
end
$code$;

建立event trigger

create event trigger tr_demo
on ddl_command_end
execute function f_event_trigger_demo();

commit;

注意到event trigger 是 on event , 有四種event,

分別是

ddl_​command_​start 	
ddl_​command_​end 	
sql_​drop 	
table_​rewrite

可以參考官網文件中的 Event Trigger Firing Matrix(上面有連結)

ddl 測試

create table foo();
INFO:  00000: Event trigger function called
INFO:  00000: command_tag [CREATE TABLE] object_type [table]

drop table foo;
INFO:  00000: Event trigger function called

測試結果探討

create 時 除了第一道 raise info 以外,還有loop 裡面的
會將 command_tag, object_type 用 raise info 列印出來.
而 drop 時, 只有執行了第一道.
會不會是event trigger 設為 on ddl_command_end的關係?
我們先將現在的event trigger tr_demo disable,然後使用同樣的function,建立 on ddl_command_start 的 event trigger.

修改 event trigger

alter event trigger tr_demo disable;
-- 這時候 tr_demo 也沒有發出 info
commit;

create event trigger tr_demo2
on ddl_command_start
execute function f_event_trigger_demo();

commit;
-- 使用meta command 觀察 event trigger
# \dy tr_demo*
                             List of event triggers
   Name   |       Event       | Owner  | Enabled  |       Function       | Tags
----------+-------------------+--------+----------+----------------------+------
 tr_demo  | ddl_command_end   | pagila | disabled | f_event_trigger_demo |
 tr_demo2 | ddl_command_start | pagila | enabled  | f_event_trigger_demo |
(2 rows)

再次測試 ddl

create table foo();

INFO:  00000: Event trigger function called

drop table foo;

INFO:  00000: Event trigger function called

第二次測試的探討

可以觀察到 on ddl_command_start , 只有前面的 rasie info,
而 pg_event_trigger_ddl_commands() 產生的是空的,所以for loop 是沒有列印.由此可以得知,一般要做紀錄時,適合使用捕捉 ddl_command_end event.

再來修改一下函數 增加列印的資訊,變化loop裡的資訊

create or replace function f_event_trigger_demo()
returns event_trigger
language plpgsql as 
$code$
declare
  event_tuple record;
begin
  raise info 'Event trigger function called , event [%] tag [%]', TG_EVENT, TG_TAG;
  for event_tuple in
      select *
        from pg_event_trigger_ddl_commands() loop
        
      raise info 'object_type [%] object_identity [%]', event_tuple.object_type, event_tuple.object_identity;
  
  end loop;
end
$code$;

第三次測試

create table foo();
INFO:  00000: Event trigger function called , event [ddl_command_start] tag [CREATE TABLE]
CREATE TABLE

drop table foo;
INFO:  00000: Event trigger function called , event [ddl_command_start] tag [DROP TABLE]
DROP TABLE

-- 可以看到 TG_EVENT, TG_TAG
-- 變更為 on ddl_command_end
alter event trigger tr_demo2 disable;

alter event trigger tr_demo enable;

commit;

create table foo();
INFO:  00000: Event trigger function called , event [ddl_command_end] tag [CREATE TABLE]
INFO:  00000: object_type [table] object_identity [s12.foo]
CREATE TABLE

drop table foo;
INFO:  00000: Event trigger function called , event [ddl_command_end] tag [DROP TABLE]
DROP TABLE

-- 接著做其他型態 ddl
create table foo ();

INFO:  00000: Event trigger function called , event [ddl_command_end] tag [CREATE TABLE]
INFO:  00000: object_type [table] object_identity [s12.foo]

alter table foo add column i int;
INFO:  00000: Event trigger function called , event [ddl_command_end] tag [ALTER TABLE]
INFO:  00000: object_type [table] object_identity [s12.foo]

create index on foo(i);
INFO:  00000: Event trigger function called , event [ddl_command_end] tag [CREATE INDEX]
INFO:  00000: object_type [index] object_identity [s12.foo_i_idx]

alter table foo rename to bar;
INFO:  00000: Event trigger function called , event [ddl_command_end] tag [ALTER TABLE]
INFO:  00000: object_type [table] object_identity [s12.bar]

第三次測試的探討

根據上面的實做,能夠理解 ddl_​command_​start , ddl_​command_​end 兩個 event 以及 pg_event_trigger_ddl_commands() 的搭配使用方法,及其不足之處.
在 drop 的時候,只能是 trigger 基本的變數,而pg_event_trigger_ddl_commands() 並無法傳回相關資訊.

sql_drop event

因為drop 有其特殊性 所以除了是一般的ddl event,還是sql_​drop event. 在 Event Trigger Firing Matrix 中,以及上面測試的觀察,我們可以得知,需要對drop event,建立另外的trigger.

建立 sql_drop event trigger

create or replace function f_event_trigger_for_drops()
returns event_trigger
language plpgsql as
$code$
declare
  event_tuple record;
begin
  raise info 'current_query() -> %', current_query();
  
  for event_tuple in select * from pg_event_trigger_dropped_objects()
  loop
    raise info '% dropped % %.% %',
      TG_TAG,
      event_tuple.object_type,
      event_tuple.schema_name,
      event_tuple.object_name,
      event_tuple.object_identity;
      
  end loop;
end;
$code$;

create event trigger test_event_trigger_for_drops
on sql_drop
execute function f_event_trigger_for_drops();

commit;

在建立上面的event trigger 與 function 時,
因為是 ddl, 所以上面的 trigger 會列印出訊息,為簡明起見,
在此不列出.
上面的function 中,使用了 current_query() ,是為了說明方便使用.
在實際應用上,可以彈性增加使用.

測試 drop index 與 drop table

drop index s12.foo_i_idx;
INFO:  00000: current_query() -> drop index s12.foo_i_idx;
INFO:  00000: DROP INDEX dropped index s12.foo_i_idx s12.foo_i_idx
INFO:  00000: Event trigger function called , event [ddl_command_end] tag [DROP INDEX]
DROP INDEX

drop table bar;
INFO:  00000: current_query() -> drop table bar;
INFO:  00000: DROP TABLE dropped table s12.bar s12.bar
INFO:  00000: DROP TABLE dropped type s12.bar s12.bar
INFO:  00000: DROP TABLE dropped type s12._bar s12.bar[]
INFO:  00000: Event trigger function called , event [ddl_command_end] tag [DROP TABLE]
DROP TABLE

sql_drop event trigger 測試探討

可以觀察到 drop table 還會drop 相關的 type, 這是PostgreSQL內部較為深入的機制了.
因為我們先把index drop 了,所以就沒有再產生依賴 table 物件的刪除事件.
在實際應用上的 create , drop 會比簡單測試的產生更多相關依賴物件的建立或刪除.

結語

此次先將 event trigger 及 三個 event 做一個初步的探討.
後續還有第四個event,以及相關的應用,再做更多的探討.


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