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2021 iThome 鐵人賽

DAY 7
1
AI & Data

網路爬蟲,萬物皆爬 - 30 天搞懂並實戰網路爬蟲及應對反爬蟲技術系列 第 7

【Day 07】- 第一隻網路爬蟲要用什麼函式庫? (Requests)

前情提要

前一篇文章帶大家看了chrome 開發工具的使用,並向下又說明了 Element 、Network 等使用,未來幾天撰寫爬蟲時會經常使用開發工具來定位、分析請求。

開始之前

大家開啟網頁後,各位的瀏覽器(客戶端 Client)便會向網頁(伺服端 Server)進行 HTTP Request method,最常見為 GET、POST (HTTP request method),之後網頁(伺服端 Server)會回傳一個 HTTP Response, 瀏覽器(客戶端 Client)會將其渲染,變成可讀性較高的內容。

今天要帶各位寫的爬蟲便是代替人類進行上述操作。大家放心,Python 的 requests 庫包裝了各種用法,讓大家能夠非常方便的使用它。

Requests

Python 中的 Requests 庫被譽為沒有預設包含在 Python 內的最流行的 Python 庫。Requests 是個 HTTP client 函式庫,且使用十分便利、優雅。

由於我們的環境都是在 pipenv 下的,這邊給出它在 pipenv 下的安裝方法,注意要在想要的專案幕錄下進行 pipenv 安裝,記得加 s。


pipenv install requests

接下來將 pipenv --venv 回傳的路徑加到 Vscode settings "python.venvPath": "{這邊放 pipenv --venv 所得的值(上面請大家記住的)}" 。之後不會特別提醒,若有還沒看過環境設定的讀者,可以回去看【Day 02】- 網路爬蟲環境設定(Python、pipenv、Vscode)

HTTP 常用的 Request Method 是 GET 、 POST,下面針對兩個介紹。

Requests GET

安裝好 Requests 並確保進入虛擬環境後,我們先來做個簡單的 GET 請求。

import requests
url = 'https://www.google.com' #先將欲發出 GET 請求的網址先存在 url
res = requests.get(url) #對 url 發出 GET 請求,並將 Response 包成回傳物件存在 res
print(type(res), res) #Output: <class 'requests.models.Response'> <Response [200]>

讀者應該有發現 res 是個 requests.models.Response 的物件,且直接印出會是 <Response [200]> 這邊解釋一下 200 是什麼,簡單來說就是 HTTP 的狀態碼,下面解釋一些常見狀態碼,想了解更多能到這 https://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/HTTP状态码

  • 200 OK:一切正常。
  • 301 Moved Permanently:永久搬家,會重新導向到新 url。
  • 302 Found(Moved Temporarily):暫時移到新位置。
  • 400 Bad Request:明顯的用戶端錯誤,伺服器無法處理這個 Request。
  • 401 Unauthorized:未授權,請求需攜帶憑證。
  • 403 Forbidden:沒有權限。
  • 404 Not Found:找不到資源。
  • 418 I’m a teapot:我是一個茶壺,不會泡咖啡。(愚人節彩蛋)
  • 500 Internal Server Error:伺服器端錯誤。
  • 502 Bad Gateway:通常是伺服器的某個服務沒有正確執行。
  • 503 Service Unavailable:伺服器臨時維護或是快掛了,暫時無法處理請求(臨時流量過大)。
  • 504 Gateway Timeout:伺服器上的服務沒有回應。

GET 是十分直觀的請求,不過有時候會攜帶參數。GET 請求攜帶參數會直接放在網址(url),位於 ? 後,若有多個則以 & 分隔。

https://www.google.com/search?q=IThome&oq=IThome為例,有兩個參數以 &分隔,第一個參數,參數名稱為 q ,參數值為 IThome ,第二個參數,參數名稱為 oq ,參數值為 IThome

Requests 提供了兩種 GET 參數傳入的方法。

import requests
# 方法一
url1 = '[https://www.google.com/search?q=IThome&oq=IThome](https://www.google.com/search?q=IThome&oq=IThome)' #直接將參數放到 url
res = requests.get(url1)
print(res.url, res) #Output: https://www.google.com/search?q=IThome&oq=IThome <Response [200]>
# 方法二
url2 = '[https://www.google.com/search](https://www.google.com/search?q=IThome&oq=IThome)'
params = {'q':'IThome','oq':'IThome'}
requests.get(url2, params=params) #Output: https://www.google.com/search?q=IThome&oq=IThome <Response [200]>

Requests POST

POST 常使用的例子是在填表單的時候,讀者們填好各種資料後按下送出按鈕,有些網頁的設計會送出一個 POST 請求,並夾帶著各位填入的資料(與 GET 不同,參數會放在 message body 而不是顯而易見的網址)。

▲ 登入 IThome 的過程中,用 chrome 開發工具分析登入的 POST 請求,發現其有夾帶輸入的帳號密碼

Python Requests 中 POST 請求可以使用許多不同種類的參數夾帶方法,像字典、元組、串列、JSON,這邊較推薦使用 JSON 與 字典進行傳入。

關於 JSON 它不是個 python 原生的資料型態,需要額外引入,之後會有一篇來單獨介紹它,目前只要知道它是個好用的結構就好(類似 Python 中的字典(dict))。

import requests
import json #JSON 非 python 原生型態但為內建,因此直接引入即可

# 使用字典傳入 POST 參數
data = {'account':'testOwO', 'password':'testOwO'}
url = 'https://zh.wikipedia.org/'
print(requests.post(url, data=data)) #Output: <Response [200]>

#使用 JSON 傳入 POST 參數
data = json.dumps(data)
url = 'https://zh.wikipedia.org/'
print(requests.post(url, data=data)) #Output: <Response [200]>

回應物件使用方法

不管使用 Requests 中 GET 或者是 POST ,都會回傳一個回應物件 requests.models.Response ,這個物件也有許多使用方法。

  • res.status_code : 該 HTTP 狀態碼

  • res.raw : 原始回應物件 urllib3.response.HTTPResponseres.raw.read() 讀取。

  • res.content : 回應物件的位元組序列(bytes)型態。

  • res.text : 回應物件的字串(str)型態。

  • res.headers : 回應物件的 headers。

  • res.json() : 回應物件的 JSON 格式,會將回應物件的字串用 JSON encode,不必引入 JSON。

  • res.raise_for_status() : 若請求失敗(Status Code 非 200),則拋出錯誤。

  • res.url : 請求的 url。

  • res.cookies : 請求後的 cookies。

  • res.encoding : 編碼格式。

更多參數

Requests 庫將許多 requests 請求的參數夾帶用法包入了,像是 Requests Headers、Proxy IP 使用、憑證驗證、Timeout、Cookies 傳入...等等都可以直接當成參數傳進像 requests.get [requests.post](http://requests.post) 等函數。

下面解釋上述用法例子。

  • Requests Headers

用 Requests 庫傳入 Requests Headers。

有些網頁會擋 User-Agent,若沒出現它允許的 User-Agent 就會拒絕存取,繞過方法十分簡單,複製 手動存取成功的 User-Agent,之後加到爬蟲的 Requests Headers 中即可。

import requests
url = 'https://snake-game-backend.herokuapp.com/Alldatas'
User_Agent = 'Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; Win64; x64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/93.0.4577.82 Safari/537.36'
headers = {
	'User-Agent' : User_Agent
}
print(requests.get(url, headers=headers).status_code) #Output: 200
  • Proxy IP 使用

Requests 庫可傳入 proxy IP 做網路代理服務,讀者可以去網路上的免費 proxy list,像是 https://geonode.com/free-proxy-list

import requests
url = 'https://snake-game-backend.herokuapp.com/Alldatas'
proxies = {'http' : 'http://62.33.207.202:80','https' : 'https://101.255.120.222:8080'}
print(requests.get(url, proxies=proxies).status_code) #Output: 200

  • 憑證驗證

如欲爬取的網站憑證失效等因素導致 https 失效(not secure),這時用 requests 會因為安全性無法爬取。Requests 可以將憑證驗證關閉,讓 Requests 成功爬取。

▲憑證失效時的確定頁面

import requests
r = requests.get('https://www.google.com', verify = False)
print(r.status_code()) #Output: 200
  • Timeout

Request 傳出後,到有回傳傳入如果超過給定 timeout 時間,會拋出一個例外。

import requests
r = requests.get('https://www.google.com', timeout=0.00000001) #**requests.exceptions.ConnectTimeout...**
  • Cookies 傳入

有些網頁用戶 session 會放在 Cookies,因此只要取得 Cookies ,並跟著 Request 一起送出就可以有用戶的 session 了。換句話說就是不需登入,可直接爬取登入後的資訊。

想要查看目前網頁下的 Cookies 可以透過開發工具的 Memory 頁簽找到。這邊有個更推薦的擴充套件可以查看/編輯,EditThisCookie

▲用 EditThisCookie 查看/編輯 Cookies

import requests
url = 'https://www.google.com'
cookies = {
	'account' : 'testOwO',
	'password' : 'testOwO'
}
print(requests.get(url, cookies=cookies).status_code) #Output: 200

Your First Crawler

讀者可以寫下下面的程式,輸出 google IThome 結果,但目前這種程度的爬蟲還沒進行任何的資料清理或鎖定,可讀性差(dom、HTML)

import requests
url1 = '[https://www.google.com/search?q=IThome&oq=IThome](https://www.google.com/search?q=IThome&oq=IThome)'
res = requests.get(url1)
print(res.text)

'''
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window.screen&&window.screen.width<=c&&window.screen.height<=c&&document.getElementById("hdr").classList.add("sml");}).call(this);})();</script><div class="cOl4Id"><a href="/?sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi308rm4YzzAhUPGqYKHQexB4wQOwgC"><span class="V6gwVd">G</span><span class="iWkuvd">o</span><span class="cDrQ7">o</span><span class="V6gwVd">g</span><span class="ntlR9">l</span><span class="iWkuvd tJ3Myc">e</span></a></div><div class="bz1lBb"><form class="Pg70bf" id="sf"><a class="l" href="/?output=search&ie=UTF-8&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi308rm4YzzAhUPGqYKHQexB4wQPAgE"><span class="V6gwVd">G</span><span class="iWkuvd">o</span><span class="cDrQ7">o</span><span class="V6gwVd">g</span><span class="ntlR9">l</span><span class="iWkuvd tJ3Myc">e</span></a><input name="ie" value="ISO-8859-1" type="hidden"><div class="H0PQec"><div class="sbc esbc"><input class="noHIxc" value="IThome" autocapitalize="none" autocomplete="off" name="q" spellcheck="false" type="text"><input name="oq" type="hidden"><input name="aqs" 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tabindex="0"><div class="TWMOUc">不限時間</div><span class="OmTIzf"></span></div><ul class="sa1toc ozatM"><li class="yNFsl SkUj4c">不限時間</li><li class="yNFsl"><a href="/search?q=IThome&ie=UTF-8&source=lnt&tbs=qdr:h&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi308rm4YzzAhUPGqYKHQexB4wQpwUIEg"> 過去 1 小時</a></li><li class="yNFsl"><a href="/search?q=IThome&ie=UTF-8&source=lnt&tbs=qdr:d&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi308rm4YzzAhUPGqYKHQexB4wQpwUIEw"> 過去 24 小時</a></li><li class="yNFsl"><a href="/search?q=IThome&ie=UTF-8&source=lnt&tbs=qdr:w&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi308rm4YzzAhUPGqYKHQexB4wQpwUIFA"> 過去 1 週</a></li><li class="yNFsl"><a href="/search?q=IThome&ie=UTF-8&source=lnt&tbs=qdr:m&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi308rm4YzzAhUPGqYKHQexB4wQpwUIFQ"> 過去 1 個月</a></li><li class="yNFsl"><a href="/search?q=IThome&ie=UTF-8&source=lnt&tbs=qdr:y&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi308rm4YzzAhUPGqYKHQexB4wQpwUIFg"> 過去 1 年</a></li></ul></div><div class="PA9J5"><div class="RXaOfd" role="button" tabindex="0"><div class="TWMOUc">所有結果</div><span class="OmTIzf"></span></div><ul class="sa1toc ozatM"><li class="yNFsl SkUj4c">所有結果</li><li class="yNFsl"><a href="/search?q=IThome&ie=UTF-8&source=lnt&tbs=li:1&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi308rm4YzzAhUPGqYKHQexB4wQpwUIGA">一字不差</a></li></ul></div></div></div></div><script nonce="2AVBOLh9+oVr1ju3HhSJZQ==">(function(){
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結語

今天介紹了 requests 這個好用的套件, 最後讓大家寫了一隻爬蟲,但目前還沒進行清理或定位,讀者可以使用 【Day 05】- Python 字串操作(正規表達式 regexes 、原生基本操作) 來對資料作處理,或者等待明天或後天的資料處理分享。

明日內容

明天會與各位介紹 requests-HTML ,它是今天的 Requests 庫再進行進一步的封裝的產物,多了資料清洗的功能,敬請期待。

補充資料

Requests 庫官方文件 : https://docs.python-requests.org/en/latest/

[Python爬蟲教學]開發Python網頁爬蟲前需要知道的五個基本觀念 : https://www.learncodewithmike.com/2020/10/python-web-scraping.html


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【Day 06】- 聽說 F12 可以拿來駭入小恐龍? (網頁開發工具分析流量)
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【Day 08】- 有著資料清洗功能的 Requests-HTML
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網路爬蟲,萬物皆爬 - 30 天搞懂並實戰網路爬蟲及應對反爬蟲技術30

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