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DAY 26
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自我挑戰組

新手村-30 Day JS Coding Challenge系列 第 26

新手村26 - Stripe Follow Along Nav

26 - Stripe Follow Along Nav

俗話說的好,一天一蘋果,醫生遠離我

一天一 JS,What the f*ck JavaScript?

small steps every day - 記錄著新手村日記

完成目標

  • 功能
    • 連結Hover時白色區塊要出現在該連結下方
  • 畫面
    • 白色區塊的寬高要符合該連結的下拉區塊
    • 滑鼠移開時白色區塊要消失
    • 白色區塊出現內容才出現
    • 下拉區塊尚未完全出現,滑鼠移動時要取消顯示內容

index_START.html

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
  <meta charset="UTF-8">
  <title>Follow Along Nav</title>
</head>
<body>
  <h2>Cool</h2>
  <nav class="top">
    <div class="dropdownBackground">
      <span class="arrow"></span>
    </div>

    <ul class="cool">
      <li>
        <a href="#">About Me</a>
        <div class="dropdown dropdown1">
          <div class="bio">
            <img src="https://logo.clearbit.com/wesbos.com">
            <p>Wes Bos sure does love web development. He teaches things like JavaScript, CSS and BBQ. Wait. BBQ isn't part of web development. It should be though!</p>
          </div>
        </div>
      </li>
      <li>
        <a href="#">Courses</a>
        <ul class="dropdown courses">
          <li>
            <span class="code">RFB</span>
            <a href="https://ReactForBeginners.com">React For Beginners</a>
          </li>
          <li>
            <span class="code">ES6</span>
            <a href="https://ES6.io">ES6 For Everyone</a>
          </li>
          <li>
            <span class="code">NODE</span>
            <a href="https://LearnNode.com">Learn Node</a>
          </li>
          <li>
            <span class="code">STPU</span>
            <a href="https://SublimeTextBook.com">Sublime Text Power User</a>
          </li>
          <li>
            <span class="code">WTF</span>
            <a href="http://Flexbox.io">What The Flexbox?!</a>
          </li>
          <li>
            <span class="code">GRID</span>
            <a href="https://CSSGrid.io">CSS Grid</a>
          </li>
          <li>
            <span class="code">LRX</span>
            <a href="http://LearnRedux.com">Learn Redux</a>
          </li>
          <li>
            <span class="code">CLPU</span>
            <a href="http://CommandLinePowerUser.com">Command Line Power User</a>
          </li>
          <li>
            <span class="code">MMD</span>
            <a href="http://MasteringMarkdown.com">Mastering Markdown</a>
          </li>
        </ul>
      </li>
      <li>
        <a href="#">Other Links</a>
        <ul class="dropdown dropdown3">
          <li><a class="button" href="http://twitter.com/wesbos">Twitter</a></li>
          <li><a class="button" href="http://facebook.com/wesbos.developer">Facebook</a></li>
          <li><a class="button" href="http://wesbos.com">Blog</a></li>
          <li><a class="button" href="http://wesbos.com/courses">Course Catalog</a></li>
        </ul>
      </li>
    </ul>
  </nav>

<style>
  html {
    box-sizing: border-box;
    font-family: "Arial Rounded MT Bold", "Helvetica Rounded", Arial, sans-serif;
  }
  
  *, *:before, *:after {
    box-sizing: inherit;
  }
  
  body {
    margin: 0;
    min-height: 100vh;
    background:
      linear-gradient(45deg, hsla(340, 100%, 55%, 1) 0%, hsla(340, 100%, 55%, 0) 70%),
      linear-gradient(135deg, hsla(225, 95%, 50%, 1) 10%, hsla(225, 95%, 50%, 0) 80%),
      linear-gradient(225deg, hsla(140, 90%, 50%, 1) 10%, hsla(140, 90%, 50%, 0) 80%),
      linear-gradient(315deg, hsla(35, 95%, 55%, 1) 100%, hsla(35, 95%, 55%, 0) 70%);
  }

  h2 {
    margin-top: 0;
    padding-top: .8em;
  }

  nav {
    position: relative;
    perspective: 600px;
  }

  .cool > li > a {
    color: yellow;
    text-decoration: none;
    font-size: 20px;
    background: rgba(0,0,0,0.2);
    padding: 10px 20px;
    display: inline-block;
    margin: 20px;
    border-radius: 5px;
  }

  nav ul {
    list-style: none;
    margin: 0;
    padding: 0;
    display: flex;
    justify-content: center;
  }

  .cool > li {
    position: relative;
    display: flex;
    justify-content: center;
  }

  .dropdown {
    opacity: 0;
    position: absolute;
    overflow: hidden;
    padding: 20px;
    top: -20px;
    border-radius: 2px;
    transition: all 0.5s;
    transform: translateY(100px);
    will-change: opacity;
    display: none;
  }

  .trigger-enter .dropdown {
    display: block;
  }

  .trigger-enter-active .dropdown {
    opacity: 1;
  }
  
  .dropdownBackground {
    width: 100px;
    height: 100px;
    position: absolute;
    background: #fff;
    border-radius: 4px;
    box-shadow: 0 50px 100px rgba(50,50,93,.1), 0 15px 35px rgba(50,50,93,.15), 0 5px 15px rgba(0,0,0,.1);
    transition: all 0.3s, opacity 0.1s, transform 0.2s;
    transform-origin: 50% 0;
    display: flex;
    justify-content: center;
    opacity:0;
  }

  .dropdownBackground.open {
    opacity: 1;
  }

  .arrow {
    position: absolute;
    width: 20px;
    height: 20px;
    display: block;
    background: white;
    transform: translateY(-50%) rotate(45deg);
  }

  .bio {
    min-width: 500px;
    display: flex;
    justify-content: center;
    align-items: center;
    line-height: 1.7;
  }

  .bio img {
    float: left;
    margin-right: 20px;
  }

  .courses {
    min-width: 300px;
  }

  .courses li {
    padding: 10px 0;
    display: block;
    border-bottom: 1px solid rgba(0,0,0,0.2);
  }

  .dropdown a {
    text-decoration: none;
    color: #ffc600;
  }

  a.button {
    background: black;
    display: block;
    padding: 10px;
    color: white;
    margin-bottom: 10px;
  }

  /* Matches Twitter, TWITTER, twitter, tWitter, TWiTTeR... */
  .button[href*=twitter] { background: #019FE9; }
  .button[href*=facebook] { background: #3B5998; }
  .button[href*=courses] { background: #ffc600; }
</style>

<script>
</script>

</body>
</html>

CSS - step by step

.dropdown {
  opacity: 0;
  position: absolute;
  overflow: hidden;
  padding: 20px;
  top: -20px;
  border-radius: 2px;
  transition: all 0.5s;
  transform: translateY(100px);
  will-change: opacity;
  display: none;
}

.trigger-enter .dropdown {
  display: block;
}

.trigger-enter-active .dropdown {
  opacity: 1;
}

JS - step by step

首先,先把觸發對象和條件先建構出來!分別抓到 NodeListdropdownBackgroundnav class="top" 三個元素,其中將 NodeList 的中的 li 透過 foreach 迴圈抓出每個 li 並觸發監聽事件 mouseentermouseleave 兩項,並執行 handleEnterhandleLeave 兩個方法

<script>  
	const triggers = document.querySelectorAll(".cool > li");
  const background = document.querySelector(".dropdownBackground");
  const nav = document.querySelector(".top");

  //NodeList(3) [li, li, li]
  //<div class="dropdownBackground"><span class="arrow"></span></div>
  //<nav class="top">...</nav>

  function handleEnter() {
    //..
  }
  function handleLeave() {
    //..
  }

  triggers.forEach(trigger => trigger.addEventListener("mouseenter", handleEnter));
  triggers.forEach(trigger => trigger.addEventListener("mouseleave", handleLeave));
</script>

滑鼠移入後,第一個先將 display:none 屬性更改掉,另一個利用 setTimeout() 方法,延遲一段時間後更改內容的透明度,而當滑鼠移開時,則是同時移除:

<script>  
	const triggers = document.querySelectorAll(".cool > li");
  const background = document.querySelector(".dropdownBackground");
  const nav = document.querySelector(".top");

  //NodeList(3) [li, li, li]
  //<div class="dropdownBackground"><span class="arrow"></span></div>
  //<nav class="top">...</nav>

  function handleEnter() {
    this.classList.add('trigger-enter');
    setTimeout(() => {
      if (this.classList.contains('trigger-enter')) {
        this.classList.add('trigger-enter-active')
      }
    }, 150)
    background.classList.add('open');
  }

  function handleLeave() {
    //..
  }

  triggers.forEach(trigger => trigger.addEventListener("mouseenter", handleEnter));
  triggers.forEach(trigger => trigger.addEventListener("mouseleave", handleLeave));
</script>

滑鼠移出後,同時移除 display:blockopacity 兩個 Class

<script>  
	const triggers = document.querySelectorAll(".cool > li");
  const background = document.querySelector(".dropdownBackground");
  const nav = document.querySelector(".top");

  //NodeList(3) [li, li, li]
  //<div class="dropdownBackground"><span class="arrow"></span></div>
  //<nav class="top">...</nav>

  function handleEnter() {
    //略
  }

  function handleLeave() {
    background.classList.remove('open');
    this.classList.remove('trigger-enter', 'trigger-enter-active');
  }

  triggers.forEach(trigger => trigger.addEventListener("mouseenter", handleEnter));
  triggers.forEach(trigger => trigger.addEventListener("mouseleave", handleLeave));
</script>

就大功告成啦!如果想看看更炫砲一點的效果,可以參考底下的程式碼w

JS - final

<script>
  const triggers = document.querySelectorAll('.cool > li');
  const background  = document.querySelector('.dropdownBackground');
  const nav  = document.querySelector('.top');

  function handleEnter() {
    this.classList.add('trigger-enter');
    setTimeout(() => this.classList.contains('trigger-enter') && this.classList.add('trigger-enter-active'), 150);
    background.classList.add('open');

    const dropdown = this.querySelector('.dropdown');
    const dropdownCoords = dropdown.getBoundingClientRect();
    const navCoords = nav.getBoundingClientRect();

    const coords = {
      height: dropdownCoords.height,
      width: dropdownCoords.width,
      top: dropdownCoords.top - navCoords.top,
      left: dropdownCoords.left - navCoords.left
    };

    background.style.setProperty('width', `${coords.width}px`);
    background.style.setProperty('height', `${coords.height}px`);
    background.style.setProperty('transform', `translate(${coords.left}px, ${coords.top}px)`);
  }

  function handleLeave() {
    this.classList.remove('trigger-enter', 'trigger-enter-active');
    background.classList.remove('open');
  }

  triggers.forEach(trigger => trigger.addEventListener('mouseenter', handleEnter));
  triggers.forEach(trigger => trigger.addEventListener('mouseleave', handleLeave));
</script>

本刊同步於個人網站:http://chestertang.site/

本次範例程式碼原作者來源:https://tinyurl.com/yavm5f5n


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新手村25 - Event Capture, Propagation, Bubbling and Once
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新手村27 - Click and Drag
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