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DAY 28
20

ASP.NET 伺服器控制項開發系列 第 37

[ASP.NET 控制項實作 Day28] 圖形驗證碼控制項

在網頁上常把圖形驗證碼應用在登入或貼文的頁面中,因為圖形驗證碼具有機器不易識別的特性,可以防止機器人程式惡意的存取網頁。在本文中將實作一個圖形驗證碼的伺服器控制項,透過簡單的屬性設定就可以輕易地在網頁上套用圖形驗證碼。
程式碼下載:ASP.NET Server Control - Day28.rar

一、產生圖形驗證碼
我們先準備一個產生圖形驗證碼的頁面 (ValidateCode.aspx),這個頁面主要是繪製驗證碼圖形,並將其寫入記憶體資料流,最後使用 Response.BinaryWrite 將圖形輸出傳遞到用戶端。當我們輸出此驗證碼圖形的同時,會使用 Session("_ValidateCode") 來記錄驗證碼的值,以便後續與使用者輸入驗證碼做比對之用。

Partial Class ValidateCode
    Inherits System.Web.UI.Page

    ''' <summary>
    ''' 產生圖形驗證碼。
    ''' </summary>
    Public Function CreateValidateCodeImage(ByRef Code As String, ByVal CodeLength As Integer, _
        ByVal Width As Integer, ByVal Height As Integer, ByVal FontSize As Integer) As Bitmap
        Dim sCode As String = String.Empty
        '顏色列表,用於驗證碼、噪線、噪點
        Dim oColors As Color() = { _
            Drawing.Color.Black, Drawing.Color.Red, Drawing.Color.Blue, Drawing.Color.Green, _
            Drawing.Color.Orange, Drawing.Color.Brown, Drawing.Color.Brown, Drawing.Color.DarkBlue}
        '字體列表,用於驗證碼
        Dim oFontNames As String() = {"Times New Roman", "MS Mincho", "Book Antiqua", _
                                      "Gungsuh", "PMingLiU", "Impact"}
        '驗證碼的字元集,去掉了一些容易混淆的字元
        Dim oCharacter As Char() = {"2"c, "3"c, "4"c, "5"c, "6"c, "8"c, _
                                    "9"c, "A"c, "B"c, "C"c, "D"c, "E"c, _
                                    "F"c, "G"c, "H"c, "J"c, "K"c, "L"c, _
                                    "M"c, "N"c, "P"c, "R"c, "S"c, "T"c, _
                                    "W"c, "X"c, "Y"c}
        Dim oRnd As New Random()
        Dim oBmp As Bitmap
        Dim oGraphics As Graphics
        Dim N1 As Integer
        Dim oPoint1 As Drawing.Point
        Dim oPoint2 As Drawing.Point
        Dim sFontName As String
        Dim oFont As Font
        Dim oColor As Color

        '生成驗證碼字串
        For N1 = 0 To CodeLength - 1
            sCode += oCharacter(oRnd.Next(oCharacter.Length))
        Next

        oBmp = New Bitmap(Width, Height)
        oGraphics = Graphics.FromImage(oBmp)
        oGraphics.Clear(Drawing.Color.White)
        Try
            For N1 = 0 To 4
                '畫噪線
                oPoint1.X = oRnd.Next(Width)
                oPoint1.Y = oRnd.Next(Height)
                oPoint2.X = oRnd.Next(Width)
                oPoint2.Y = oRnd.Next(Height)
                oColor = oColors(oRnd.Next(oColors.Length))
                oGraphics.DrawLine(New Pen(oColor), oPoint1, oPoint2)
            Next

            For N1 = 0 To sCode.Length - 1
                '畫驗證碼字串
                sFontName = oFontNames(oRnd.Next(oFontNames.Length))
                oFont = New Font(sFontName, FontSize, FontStyle.Italic)
                oColor = oColors(oRnd.Next(oColors.Length))
                oGraphics.DrawString(sCode(N1).ToString(), oFont, New SolidBrush(oColor), CSng(N1) * FontSize + 10, CSng(8))
            Next

            For i As Integer = 0 To 30
                '畫噪點
                Dim x As Integer = oRnd.Next(oBmp.Width)
                Dim y As Integer = oRnd.Next(oBmp.Height)
                Dim clr As Color = oColors(oRnd.Next(oColors.Length))
                oBmp.SetPixel(x, y, clr)
            Next

            Code = sCode
            Return oBmp
        Finally
            oGraphics.Dispose()
        End Try
    End Function

    ''' <summary>
    ''' 產生圖形驗證碼。
    ''' </summary>
    Public Sub CreateValidateCodeImage(ByRef MemoryStream As MemoryStream, _
        ByRef Code As String, ByVal CodeLength As Integer, _
        ByVal Width As Integer, ByVal Height As Integer, ByVal FontSize As Integer)
        Dim oBmp As Bitmap

        oBmp = CreateValidateCodeImage(Code, CodeLength, Width, Height, FontSize)
        Try
            oBmp.Save(MemoryStream, ImageFormat.Png)
        Finally
            oBmp.Dispose()
        End Try
    End Sub

    Protected Sub Page_Load(ByVal sender As Object, ByVal e As System.EventArgs) Handles Me.Load
        Dim sCode As String = String.Empty
        '清除該頁輸出緩存,設置該頁無緩存
        Response.Buffer = True
        Response.ExpiresAbsolute = System.DateTime.Now.AddMilliseconds(0)
        Response.Expires = 0
        Response.CacheControl = "no-cache"
        Response.AppendHeader("Pragma", "No-Cache")
        '將驗證碼圖片寫入記憶體流,並將其以 "image/Png" 格式輸出
        Dim oStream As New MemoryStream()
        Try
            CreateValidateCodeImage(oStream, sCode, 4, 100, 40, 18)
            Me.Session("_ValidateCode") = sCode
            Response.ClearContent()
            Response.ContentType = "image/Png"
            Response.BinaryWrite(oStream.ToArray())
        Finally
            '釋放資源
            oStream.Dispose()
        End Try
    End Sub
End Class

我們將此頁面置於 ~/Page/ValidateCode.aspx,當要使用此頁面的圖形驗證碼,只需要在使用 Image 控制項,設定 ImageUrl 為此頁面即可。

<asp:Image ID="imgValidateCode" runat="server" ImageUrl="~/Page/ValidateCode.aspx" />

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[ASP.NET 控制項實作 Day27] 控制項依 FormView CurrentMode 自行設定狀態(續2)
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[ASP.NET 控制項實作 Day28] 圖形驗證碼控制項(續)
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