iT邦幫忙

2019 iT 邦幫忙鐵人賽

DAY 9
3
「解救英文苦難的IT人」系列文 Day 12
  • 在用生命在賺取收入而錢卻越來越難賺的時代,能不花錢學到某個專業人士在某個領域的多年經驗、知識、技巧、訣竅,是很好的事情。
  • 第一次接觸本系列的朋友,麻煩從第一篇開始看,因為有連貫性(後文內容常架構在前文之上,少了前文當基礎,可能難以理解)。

比較這兩句

  1. I go jogging in the park near my home every day after work because it helps keep me healthy and I can eat more for dinner.
  2. Doing regular exercise provides the foundations for my general health, and jogging in the park every day after work, rain or shine, is my way to put this idea into practice.

一般人傾向於不假思索說字數多的句子具有較高的品質,這或許是一個快速判斷的方法,但能不能深入一些分析比較為何第二句優於第一句?

  • 第二句有『層次感』:先說抽象的廣泛概念(規律運動奠定我健康的基礎)再提出具體實例強化剛剛的概念(每天下班在公園慢跑,不論晴天或下雨,是我將此概念付諸實現的方式)。如果再延伸出細節,譬如個人感受,那麼品質會再提高:While jogging, I have time to reflect on everything I did that day so that I can do better later on.(慢跑時,我有時間反省當天我做的每件事,以便我能在以後做得更好);未必要扯到嚴肅話題才叫好:The exercise helps relax muscles and gives me an appetite.(這運動幫助放鬆肌肉並讓我有胃口)。
  • 第二句運用『相對不常見但也不罕見更不艱深』的句型,會讓人有耳目一新的感受。不管是單字、片語、句型、時態、內容,就跟創意一樣,創新的點子不會是普遍每個人都能想到的,使用多個相對不常見的元素能使整體品質提高而幾乎不著痕跡。

層次感也可以展現在單一句子的前後部分。

範例:當和朋友聊到是否喜愛目前的工作時,與其說 I don't like my job because ...,不如:My heart is not in the current job, not to mention working unpaid overtime five times a week.(我的心不在現在這份工作,更不用說每週五次沒錢領的加班了)顯示不但無心工作,更厭惡沒加班費的頻繁加班。not to mention 可用在正面、負面和中立的語氣,不過其後只能以名詞當受詞(提醒:例句中的working unpaid overtime ... 是動名詞片語,詞性是名詞),不可以直接加that引導的名詞子句。若要有子句才能完整表達意思的話,必須這麼說:not to mention the fact that + S + V。例句:I like playing board games because these games can boost my brain power, not to mention the fact that I can have an enjoyable experience of playing with friends.(我喜歡玩桌遊因為能提升我的腦力,更不用說我能擁有和朋友一起玩的愉快經驗)提升腦力是實體層次、和朋友一起玩的愉快經驗是精神層次。

還有沒有其他策略能讓整體英文口說品質有效提升呢?

從實例開始體悟吧!

  1. I was disappointed to know that the museum was going to close because of lack of funding, so I decided to launch a fundraising campaign.
  2. I was disappointed to know that the museum was going to close because of lac of funding. In spite of my limited time and resources, I decided to launch a fundraising campaign.

第二句比第一句優秀的原因顯然和用字遣詞無關。為什麼?

第二句多出的部分是「in spite of my limited time and resources」,有了這個介詞片語(當副詞,表讓步),品質會提高一些。讓步,以進為退或以退為進,這句的時間與資源有限是退,在這種情況下仍決定發起募款運動,所以是以退為進。不但有層次感,還產生兩種現況的對照(資源有限 vs. 發起募款)。表達讓步的方法整理如下:

  • 運用while, although, though, even though, even if引導的從屬子句(修飾主要子句)
  • 運用despite, in spite of, regardless of引導的介詞片語(當副詞,修飾整句);在正式場合,譬如:職場和學術場合的口頭簡報,可以使用notwithstanding這個介詞(雖然看起來跟印象中的in, at, with, for等介詞不太像,但它確實是介詞)
  • 運用慣用語,例如:rain or shine, come what may (= whatever happens)
  1. 直接說法:I always eat breakfast before I go out for work.

  2. 運用讓步:I have a hurried breakfast before I go out for work [in spite of limited time/though I usually sleep in on weekdays].

  3. 直接說法:I like to eat burgers and French fries at McDonald's.

  4. 運用讓步:[Though I know eating fast food is not good for health/In spite of the harmful effects of fast food on health], I like to eat burgers and French fries at McDonald's.

  • 前面說過,讓步也具備對照的效果,譬如聊到個人偏好的時候,有兩種選擇即可以對照的方式呈現:Although it is relatively safe to have travelling companions, I enjoy being a lone backpacker so that I can travel in my own way and at my own pace.(有旅伴是安全的 vs. 獨自旅行可用自己的方式和步調進行,同時說出兩種旅行的優點)。另一個話題:信用卡和現金哪個好?Although paying by credit card is convenient, not to mention Apple Pay, an efficient, innovative way of making payments, I prefer to pay cash considering privacy.(信用卡付款方便快速 vs. 付現金較無隱私問題)。
  • 用while表示讓步和對照(很常用):While I go along with your idea of moving into a bigger place, I don't agree to buy a single story building in the heart of Taipei. (儘管我同意你搬到比較大的地方的想法,我並不同意在台北市中心買一棟單層建築)

叮嚀:適度使用、講求變化

追蹤本系列文的讀者應該有留意到我對於重複使用and, but, so, because接續句子是詬病的,不過別以為我從不用那四個字。我那麼強調的目的在希望大家能懂得運用豐富句型來讓英文口說表現得多采多姿,同時證實自己使用英文的能力達到一定水準。所有方法只能夠適當的適量的使用,濫用會導致個人立場和語意模稜兩可,變成有說等於沒說,甚至說了更令人覺得混亂。要抓到正確的使用情境與時機仍舊需要多練習和多接收回饋並從中逐步改進。全都是老生常談,卻也是英文進步的亙古箴言。

若有兩個資訊要合併在一句話裡,有and的替代方案嗎?

參考一下:介詞 apart from = aside from 引導的片語放一個資訊,句子的其他部分放另一個資訊,就會有相當於and連接兩個資訊的效果。我舉求職面試的時候會被問到的一個題目當實例:Did your education prepare you well for your previous job?(你所受的教育有使你準備好能做好前一份工作嗎)

  • 適合社工師及心理師:Yes. Apart from the conceptual framework and analytical methods, I was trained to have a sympathetic ear. Listening attentively made my last job go smoothly.(概念架構與分析方法and樂於傾聽)
  • 適合護理師:Yes. Apart from medical expertise I learned at college, practical experience from the internship program was exactly what I needed while working as an emergency room nurse in a medical center.(學校學到的醫學專門知識and實習獲得的實務經驗)
  • 適合基層教師:Yes. Apart from theoretical knowledge, I have benefited a lot from my first-hand experience of being a trainee teacher in primary school.(理論知識and實習老師的第一手經驗)
  • 適合視覺傳達設計師:Yes. Apart from familiarizing myself with color schemes, in the course in graphic design, I was quipped with the computer skills required to carry out my tasks.(熟悉色彩計畫and電腦技能)

如果應用上述技巧描寫符合自己條件和需求之後想獲得專業人士的改善意見的話,歡迎參考免費Youtube直播。擔心自己英文底子不到能夠運用上述技巧的朋友可參考免費一對一英文從頭打造

綜合練習(運用任一種讓步方法強化句子)

  1. I am a big meat eater and avoid eating vegetables _________________ .
  2. I would like to find a nine-to-five job _____________ .
  3. I live near the exit of the metro station _____________ .

下一篇要介紹進階的提升品質的方法。


上一篇
解救英文苦難的IT人:必備動詞用法和系統化背英單的方法(下) Day 10
下一篇
IT人的英文口說大改造:基本觀念與實現(下) Day 13
系列文
三十天翻轉英文弱底、三十天強化英文口說,寫給英文苦難的IT人26

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微中子
iT邦新手 4 級 ‧ 2018-10-20 23:41:21

受益良多

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