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2019 iT 邦幫忙鐵人賽

DAY 10
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自我挑戰組

三十天翻轉英文弱底、三十天強化英文口說,寫給英文苦難的IT人系列 第 7

提高IT人的英文閱讀理解力並加快閱讀速度:長、複雜英文句子拆解分析 Day 20

利用五大句型和前文講解的各種結構,可以拆解長、複雜的句子進而提高理解程度,掌握結構分界和不同結構之間的關係也能加快閱讀速度。未必越長的句子其整體結構就越複雜,複雜與否要視包含的基本結構之數量和不同結構間的關係而定。

下面有五句話,每句從30字到49字不等,取材自學術報告(著作權屬於原作者,網站:The Future of Children)。現在要將前面講過五大句型和其他方法技巧融會貫通,來拆解這些長、複雜的句子。若覺得五句還不夠達到精熟,這個網頁有更多句子和拆解的過程。

  1. We have less consistent evidence for the role of professional development and coaching programs in producing higher-quality academic outcomes for students, regardless of which curriculum or intervention is being implemented. (30) 這句看開頭幾個字就能確立屬於五大句型中的主詞We+及物動詞have+受詞evidence,至於for the role到outcomes for students整個視為副詞,表示對象。我收錄這句的主要目的是講解介詞regardless of加上which引導的名詞子句當受詞,形成介詞片語,當副詞,表示讓步。regardless of which=no matter which。
  2. Most teachers of kindergarten can count on clear job requirements, professional development opportunities, workplace supports such as paid planning time, and a transparent and rational salary structure based on qualifications and experience. (32) 主詞teachers被介詞片語of kindergardten當形容詞後位修飾,動詞count on仰仗、依靠,其受詞是四個由and連接的名詞:requirements, opportunities, supports, structure。其中structure被一個普通形容詞片語based on qualifications and experience後位修飾。整句無疑地屬於主詞+及物動詞+受詞。
  3. While telecommuting can work well when well designed, what seems most problematic about it is that working parents are already using computers at home and on the weekends for spillover work from their workdays, thereby blurring the boundaries between work and family. (42) 連接詞While有著光鮮亮麗的功能,因為同時包含時間、讓步與對照三層次的含意。雖然我的翻譯是「當...的時候」,卻在意味著主要子句發生是基於While引導的副詞子句而且主要子句的內容是While子句的凸顯或強調。當電子通勤在設計良好時能運作很好,意思是指要電子通勤制度妥善設計就能運作得很好,在這個情況下,關於電子通勤最有問題的似乎是,What引導名詞子句當句子的主詞,而What是該名詞子句裡的主詞,視為第三人稱單數。主詞是名詞子句、動詞是is、再加上that子句,是that引導的名詞子句當主詞補語等於主詞。電子通勤最可能會成為問題之處在有工作的父母親已在家是用電腦並且週末時還要做上班日做不完的工作,這個現象模糊了工作和家庭的界線。平常工作多到週末還得帶回家繼續做,那電子通勤制度的幫助就不大,畢竟電子通勤的主要目的之一是讓工作者對時間分配有更大高的靈活度。
  4. One of the possible explanations for these results is that low-income parents, especially those who are single, are likely to have little control over scheduling their work hours and are less likely to have access to flexible work arrangements than do professional employees. (43) 主詞One單數搭配動詞is,接that引導的名詞子句當主詞補語,顯示that子句的內容等於主詞,而One是許多explanations之中的一項,所以One的意思「是解釋」。到此確立整句句型屬於主詞+不及物動詞+主詞補語。繼續分析that子句:主詞parents,低所得的家長可能會 ...,be likely to do something可能會,原句有兩件事情,分別是have little control對某事的控制力比較小,名詞control加over引導的介詞片語後位修飾、以及are less likely to have access ... 比較不可能利用 ...,flexible work arrangements當介詞to的受詞,整個介詞片語當形容詞,後位修飾access,比較不可能利用彈性的工作安排;和誰比較呢?than do professional employees比起專業性質的工作者,這裡是倒裝,按順序的表示法是:than professional employees do,其中助動詞do代替have access to ... 避免重複。整理一下:are likely 和 are less likely 用and連接起來,共用一個主詞parents。
  5. Parents whose work schedules do not coincide with their school-age children's schedules must arrange for the predictable—transporting their children to and from school and finding care for them during the gap between the end of the school day and the end of the workday and during school vacations. (49) 所有格關係代名詞whose引導的形容詞子句後位修飾整句的主詞Parents、動詞是arrange for籌劃、準備、安排,其受詞是the predictable,記得嗎?the+形容詞等於複數名詞,the predictable指可以預期的所有事情,包括送小孩上下學、在學校結束到工作日結束以及在學校放假的期間替孩子們找人照顧。整句屬於五大句型中的主詞+及物動詞+受詞。什麼樣的父母要做上述安排呢?形容詞子句的內容提供了解答,原來是工作行程無法和學齡兒童的行程安排在一致的父母。

練習分析

  1. Children whose parents set television viewing rules watch forty fewer minutes of television each day than children whose parents set no rules.
  2. With millions of children needing care at predictable times before and after school, flexibility in start and end times for work could greatly reduce the parental stress of finding alternative care arrangements.
  3. Given the current economic climate and the public cries to cut public spending, even for education, it seems unrealistic to expect changes in the school schedule or significant additions to after-school programs that would help parents balance their work-family responsibilities.

上一篇
解救英文苦難的IT人:英文口說綜合練習(下) Day 19
系列文
三十天翻轉英文弱底、三十天強化英文口說,寫給英文苦難的IT人7

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